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Top 10 SDLC

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SDLC stands for Software Development Life Cycle, which is a process used by software development teams to design, develop and test high-quality software. It is a well-defined, structured sequence of stages that outlines the entire software development process from start to finish. The main goal of SDLC is to produce high-quality software that meets customer requirements and is delivered on time and within budget.

The SDLC process can vary depending on the project, team size, and software development methodology being used. However, it typically involves the following stages: planning, analysis, design, implementation, testing, deployment, and maintenance.

Here are the top SDLC models


The waterfall model is a traditional software development model in which each phase of the software development life cycle (SDLC) is executed in a linear, sequential manner, and the next phase begins only after the previous phase is complete. The phases of the waterfall model include requirement analysis, design, implementation, testing, and maintenance. Once a phase is complete, it is difficult to go back and make changes, which can lead to delays and higher costs if requirements change during the development process. The waterfall model is considered a rigid and inflexible approach to software development and is less suited to complex projects with changing requirements.


The V-Model is a software development process model that emphasizes the importance of early testing and verification of requirements. The name "V-Model" comes from the fact that the model is shaped like a "V", with the development process flowing downward on the left side of the "V", and the testing process flowing upward on the right side of the "V". The V-Model is often used in safety-critical systems and is known for its focus on testing, quality assurance, and traceability. The V-Model also emphasizes the need for documentation throughout the development process, including requirements documentation, design documentation, and test documentation.

Spiral Model

The Spiral Model is a software development process model that combines elements of both the Waterfall Model and the Agile Model. It is a risk-driven model that involves constant testing and re-evaluation of the software being developed. The Spiral Model involves a series of cycles, each of which involves four stages: planning, risk analysis, engineering, and evaluation.

In the planning stage, project goals are identified, and requirements are defined. In the risk analysis stage, potential risks and problems are identified and assessed.

In the engineering stage, the software is designed, developed, and tested. Finally, in the evaluation stage, the software is evaluated to determine if it meets the project goals and requirements.

The Spiral Model is particularly useful for large, complex projects where risks need to be carefully managed. It allows for flexibility and continuous testing, which can help to identify and address issues early on in the development process.


This is a subset of the Agile model and focuses on iterative development and delivery of software. It involves a cross-functional team working together in short sprints to deliver small increments of software. It is based on the principles of transparency, inspection, and adaptation.

Scrum promotes collaboration, frequent feedback, and continuous improvement to deliver high-quality software products. The Scrum framework consists of three roles: the Product Owner, the Scrum Master, and the Development Team. The Product Owner is responsible for defining and prioritizing the product backlog, which is a list of features or requirements that need to be developed. The Scrum Master is responsible for facilitating the Scrum events and ensuring that the Scrum team follows the Scrum framework. The Development Team is responsible for designing, developing, testing, and delivering the product.

Scrum is an iterative and incremental approach to software development. The development process is divided into short iterations called Sprints, which typically last 1–4 weeks. At the beginning of each Sprint, the Scrum team selects a set of items from the product backlog to work on. During the Sprint, the team designs, develops, tests, and delivers a potentially shippable product increment.

At the end of the Sprint, the team reviews the product increment with the Product Owner and plans the next Sprint.

Incremental Model

The Incremental Model is an SDLC model that divides the software development process into smaller, more manageable parts or increments. Each increment includes the same set of activities, such as planning, design, coding, testing, and deployment. However, these activities are repeated for each increment, and each increment represents a new and more complete version of the software. In the Incremental Model, each increment builds upon the previous increment, and the software is tested and delivered to the client incrementally.

This means that the client gets a working software product with each increment. The Incremental Model is similar to the Iterative Model in that both models involve incremental development and testing. The Incremental Model involves more of a linear approach to development, with each increment building upon the previous one, while the Iterative Model involves a cyclic approach to development, with each iteration improving upon the previous one.

Lean Model

The Lean model is a software development methodology that focuses on maximizing value for customers and minimizing waste. It is a customer-centric approach that aims to deliver high-quality software quickly and efficiently.

The Lean model is based on five principles:

  • Define value from the customer's perspective.

  • Map the value stream to eliminate waste.

  • Create flow by making work visible and reducing batch sizes.

  • Establish pull by letting the customer determine the pace of work.

  • Continuously improve by relentlessly pursuing perfection.

In practice, the Lean model involves creating cross-functional teams that are empowered to make decisions and take ownership of the development process. It emphasizes frequent communication, rapid prototyping, and continuous feedback from customers.

DevOps Model

DevOps is a set of practices that combines software development (Dev) and IT operations (Ops) to reduce the time it takes to deliver high-quality software products and services to customers. It is an approach that emphasizes collaboration, automation, continuous integration and delivery, and feedback loops to increase the efficiency, speed, and reliability of software development and deployment processes. The DevOps model aims to break down silos between development and operations teams, enabling more effective communication and collaboration throughout the software development lifecycle.


RAD stands for Rapid Application Development. The RAD model is a software development approach that puts an emphasis on rapid prototyping and iterative development. This model emphasizes a faster development process by using pre-built components to develop software. In the RAD model, developers work in close collaboration with users to rapidly prototype and refine the software.

This model follows a linear sequential process where each stage is completed before moving on to the next. The RAD model is suitable for projects where the requirements are well-defined, and the project has a short timeframe.

Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery (CI/CD)

Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery (CI/CD) is a software development approach that emphasizes the frequent delivery of new features and updates to end users through the use of automation, collaboration, and testing.

CI/CD is an iterative process where code is continuously integrated into a shared repository, built, tested, and deployed to production environments. The ultimate goal of CI/CD is to reduce the time and effort required to release high-quality software to end users. In the CI/CD model, developers commit code changes to a shared repository, which triggers a build process. This build process includes the integration of all code changes, compiling, and building the software. Automated testing is performed to ensure the new changes don't break existing functionality.

Once the build and test process is complete, the software is deployed to a staging or production environment. The software is then monitored for issues, and any necessary changes or fixes are made to the code, and the process starts again.


In conclusion, there are several SDLC models available for software development, and each has its strengths and weaknesses. The selection of an appropriate model depends on various factors such as the project scope, timelines, resources, and team size. It is essential to have a good understanding of each model's key features to make an informed decision on which model to use for a specific project.


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